Including calendars, notepads, and mailing labels with a fundraising letter are all examples of the gift technique in fundraising. The gift technique may reflect the norm of reciprocity. The norm of reciprocity suggests that if someone helps us or gives us a gift we may feel obligated to do something for that person in return. Scientific evidence lends support to the idea that giving someone a gift can influence donating decisions. Whatley, Webster, Smith, and Rhodes (1999) found that undergraduate students who were given candy (favor condition) were more likely to make a pledge than undergraduate students who didn't receive candy (no favor condition). Also, the average amount pledged (with nondonors included) was more in the favor condition than in the no favor condition.